By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with fundamental learn and coaching event in North American arid lands, i've got constantly came across the eu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary creation, in the course of a survey path on international prehis tory, tested that (for me, not less than) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named instrument kinds than any undergraduate should need to take into account. i didn't recognize a lot, yet I knew there have been larger issues i'll be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any proposal of pur suing study on Stone Age Europe-that direction used to be sufficient for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the overdue Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of innovative human adaptive switch. Iron ically, it all used to be amenable to research utilizing exactly the similar versions and analytical instruments i stopped up spending the higher a part of 20 years using within the nice Basin of western North the US. again then, in fact, few have been pondering the overdue Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, type, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate direction mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled lower than I on the activity of learning those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he used to be keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages may be hooked up as a part of greater neighborhood subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Additional info for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
Another such link may be sweetness of taste (conSCiously recognized) with certain vitamin contents (nutritionally necessary) . THE CHANGING THEORETICAL LANDSCAPE 21 On the other hand, perhaps our models of hunter-gatherer behavior do not need to be overly concerned with the fine details of nutrition. Natural foods are generally more nutritionally diverse than our refined foods. In all but the most extreme environments, it may be difficult not to obtain a relatively balanced diet by foraging. I have previously noted that there may be a general association between fat and protein contents in wild foods, such that foods with high fat contents (and therefore perhaps consciously recognized as tasty and filling) tend to have high protein contents (and are therefore likely to fill needs for both essential amino acids, fatty acids, and fat-soluble vitamins).
I originally modeled reliability of resources as a criterion equal in importance to efficiency and constructed a measure incorporating resource yield, density, and mobility. Work using optimal foraging theory initially ignored risk, but more recently has included it in two ways. First, it has been suggested, based on simulations by Stephens and Charnov (1982), that resource variations have little effect on solutions for the optimal diet, and therefore can often be ignored. Second, models that include resource-sharing among individuals have been used to suggest that even small-scale sharing among a few people can compensate for individual variations in success in food-getting (Winterhalder, 1986).
L. INTRODUCTION The landscape history of southwestern Germany is one of the best studied in Europe. Early geomorphological work by Penck and Bruckner (1909) along the Riss , Wurm, and other small streams draining the Alps was seminal in the development of our understanding of glacial history, while pollen studies by Bertsch (196l) and Firbas (1949) in this area established the basic vegetational history for much of central Europe. This research emphasis has continued to the present, producing a rich record unparalleled in most of the continent.