By T. M. Flynn, C. N. Smith (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)
1971 marked the 1st 12 months in view that 1956 that the yearly Cryogenic Engineering convention used to be now not held. as a substitute, the Cryogenic Engineering convention gave its complete help to the XIII overseas Congress of Refrigeration through operating with Commissions I and II of the overseas Institute of Refrigeration to prepare the cryogenic periods for those commissions. all the papers provided on the foreign Congress of Refrigeration should be released via the IIR as a part of the court cases of that assembly. although no Cryogenic Engineering convention used to be held in 1971, it turned particularly glaring to the convention Board that there have been adequate advances in cryogenic engineering to warrant the book of quantity 17 of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. quantity 17 offers the advances during this vital box by means of bringing jointly in a single quantity many of the major papers which have been provided at a variety of technical conferences around the state in the course of the latter 1/2 1970 and the 1st a part of 1971. furthermore, a number of authoritative assessment papers were ready by means of invitation of the Cryogenic Engineering convention Board.
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Extra info for Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: A Collection of Invited Papers and Contributed Papers Presented at National Technical Meetings During 1970 and 1971
Hydrogen Separation and Liquefaction. The impurities vary widely in nature and concentration depending on the source gas which may originate from the steam reforming of natural gas, partial oxidation of hydrocarbons. coking of coal, reaction of steam and oxygen with coal (water gas), hydrocarbon cracking. petroleum refining, electrolysis of water, or dissociation of ammonia. 7 % and the impurities may be anyone or more of the following: water. eJ 40 B. F. Dodge carbon dioxide, methane, higher aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide.
8°R for nitrogen), the precooling fluid solidifies under its own vapor pressure, and poor thermal performance results for heat exchange with solid nitrogen in the precooling bath. LINDE DUAL-PRESSURE SYSTEM The basic Linde-Hampson system may be improved by a second technique . Since only a small portion of the gas compressed is actually liquefied in the basic system, the compressor work requirement could be reduced by expanding the gas to an intermediate pressure, instead of expanding to ambient pressure.
The work requirement for an isothermal compressor is roughly equal to RTi In(p2/pd, so that a reduction in the compressor pressure ratio would reduce the compressor work requirement. This concept forms the basis for the Linde dualpressure system, shown in Fig. 10. The cycle is shown on the temperature--entropy plane in Fig. 11. The liquid yield for the dual-pressure system is given by Y = (hi - h3) - i(h i - h2 ) (9) ---=----=---=--~ (hi - hJ) where i is the intermediate stream mass flow rate rhirh and rh is the mass flow rate through the high-pressure compressor.