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Additional info for Antiaromaticity in Open-Shell Cyclopropenyl to Cycloheptatrienyl Cations, Anions, Free Radicals, and Radical Ions

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Production of Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde is predominantly accumulated by lactic acid bacteria that have no alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme. These bacteria therefore cannot reduce acetylaldehyde (formed via the pyruvate-lyase pathway) to ethanol. Chap. 1 Introduction 13 4. The Propionic Acid Fermentation The propionic acid bacteria are Gram positive, nonspore-forming, non motile rods. They grow under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions. They ferment lactic acid, carbohydrates and polyalcohols with the formation of propionic acid, acetic acid and CO2.

30: CH3COOH + 2O2 Æ 2CO2 + 2H2O Equ. 5O2 Æ 3CO2 + 3H2O Based on the above equation 30 and 31, 1 mol·l-1 acetic acid (= 60 g·l-1) equals 64 g COD·l-1 and 1 mol·l-1 propionate (= 74 g·l-1) equals 112 g COD·l-1. Using these constants, the composition of organic compounds in the effluent of the whey reactor was specified for the contribution of single compound (Figure 10). A higher OLR tended to increase the residual organic compounds in the effluent. At a lower OLR (less than 10 g COD·l-1·d-1), the effluent contained only acetate and other non-acid organic compounds, while acetate and propionate appeared as components of the organic material in the effluent of the whey reactor at a higher OLR.

At a higher OLR than 10 g COD·l-1·d-1, the acetate concentration tended to increase to more than 50 mM (Figure 13). The optimal operating condition for the whey reactor with a COD concentration of 50 g·l-1 was a HRT between 4 to 8 days and an OLR of less than 10 g COD·l-1·d-1. 46 Chap. 3 Results 150 Conc. Fatty Acid (mM) Acetate (mM) Propionate (mM) 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 HRT (day) Residual volatile fatty acids concentration at different HRT. Figure 12 Conc. 3 Residual volatile fatty acids concentration at different OLR.

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