By Allen A.D., Tidwell T.T.
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Additional info for Antiaromaticity in Open-Shell Cyclopropenyl to Cycloheptatrienyl Cations, Anions, Free Radicals, and Radical Ions
Production of Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde is predominantly accumulated by lactic acid bacteria that have no alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme. These bacteria therefore cannot reduce acetylaldehyde (formed via the pyruvate-lyase pathway) to ethanol. Chap. 1 Introduction 13 4. The Propionic Acid Fermentation The propionic acid bacteria are Gram positive, nonspore-forming, non motile rods. They grow under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions. They ferment lactic acid, carbohydrates and polyalcohols with the formation of propionic acid, acetic acid and CO2.
30: CH3COOH + 2O2 Æ 2CO2 + 2H2O Equ. 5O2 Æ 3CO2 + 3H2O Based on the above equation 30 and 31, 1 mol·l-1 acetic acid (= 60 g·l-1) equals 64 g COD·l-1 and 1 mol·l-1 propionate (= 74 g·l-1) equals 112 g COD·l-1. Using these constants, the composition of organic compounds in the effluent of the whey reactor was specified for the contribution of single compound (Figure 10). A higher OLR tended to increase the residual organic compounds in the effluent. At a lower OLR (less than 10 g COD·l-1·d-1), the effluent contained only acetate and other non-acid organic compounds, while acetate and propionate appeared as components of the organic material in the effluent of the whey reactor at a higher OLR.
At a higher OLR than 10 g COD·l-1·d-1, the acetate concentration tended to increase to more than 50 mM (Figure 13). The optimal operating condition for the whey reactor with a COD concentration of 50 g·l-1 was a HRT between 4 to 8 days and an OLR of less than 10 g COD·l-1·d-1. 46 Chap. 3 Results 150 Conc. Fatty Acid (mM) Acetate (mM) Propionate (mM) 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 HRT (day) Residual volatile fatty acids concentration at different HRT. Figure 12 Conc. 3 Residual volatile fatty acids concentration at different OLR.