By Philip E. LaMoreaux (auth.), Dr. Philip E. LaMoreaux, Judy T. Tanner (eds.)
Springs and Bottled Waters of the World offers details for most people, felony and clinical pros, and governmental scientists approximately springs, mineral water, and thermal waters used for municipal, commercial, and agricultural water provides in addition to for the quickly increasing bottled water undefined. The position of springs is defined for historic civilizations, army campaigns and, in additional fresh instances, for tourism and wellbeing and fitness spas of the area. furthermore, their resource, incidence, and strategies for improvement and use are defined. within the guidance of this booklet info have been received from significant hydrogeologic info bases and from prime hydrogeologists.
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Additional info for Springs and Bottled Waters of the World: Ancient History, Source, Occurence, Quality and Use
Such areas arc to be distinguished from areas of 3 . Geologic/Hyd rogeologic Setting and Classi ficatio n of Spring s 36 moist soil owing to capillarity. Throughout much of the Piedmont and Appalachian areas of the USA, springs issue from fractures and fiss ures andlor along contact zones between two rock types of d iffe rent permeability. Springs and seeps have a role in altering the landscape simply because they act as an erosion force and the moving water carries with it dissolved minerals which have been assimilated in the passage of water through the rocks and soil.
Historical Development References Biswas AK (1970) History of hydrology. Resources Research Centre, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottaway, North-Holland Publishing Company. , New York, 336 p Fricke MJ (1992) Bottled-Water. Made in USA, Verlag W. Sachon Hansen TJ (1992) Environmental Geology. American Institute of Professional Geologists, 7828 Vance Drive, Arvada, Colorado. The Professional Geologist 29(7):4-5 o • • o o o o o o • o o o • • • • '0 o • o· o o o· • o • • • • 00 • oo o · o • '.
8 shows a typical water supply system by qanats; the cross section shows the sloping main channel and entrance shafts along the tunnel used during excavation to remove the excavated material. The qanats literally brought groundwater along a "spring line" down a slope or gradient to a point of discharge convenient for the use of the water. A primitive type of water meter was used at the Gadames oasis in North Africa more than 3 000 years ago, and it is still being used without modification. This oasis has a small spring called Ain el Fras ("Spring of the Mare") which, according to legend, was discovered by the horse of an Arabian conqueror.